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RECOGNIZATION: Defacto ( unrecognize )

CAPITAL: Timbuktu

LANGUAGES: Tuareg, Arabic, Tamaschek, Songhai, Fula, Bambara, French

PRESIDENT: Mahmoud Ag Aghaly

VICE PRESIDENT: Bilal Ag Acherif

DECLERATION: 12 April 2012

ETHNIC: Tuareg, Songhai, Moor ( 95 % ), Bambara

RELIGION: Sunni/Sufism Islam


The Tuareg are a Berber people with a traditionally nomadic pastoralist lifestyle. They are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. The name Tuareg is derived from Targa, the Berber name of Libya's Fezzan province. Tuaregs are not Arab. Tuareg people use tamasegh language and dialects. These people have very rich culture and they known as good artisans and warriors.

Before French colonization, the Tuareg were organized into loose confederations, each consisting of a dozen or so tribes. Each of the main groups had a traditional leader called Amenokal, along with an assembly of tribal chiefs (imɣaran, singular amɣar). The groups were the Kel Ahaggar, Kel Ajjer, Kel Ayr, Adrar n Fughas, Iwəlləmədan, and Kel Gres. Tuareg territory was organized into confederations, each ruled by a supreme Chief (Amenokal), along with a counsel of elders from each tribe.Clan (Tewsit) elders, called Imegharan (wisemen), are chosen to assist the chief of the confederation. Historically, there are seven recent major confederations:Kel Ajjer, Kel Ahaggar, Kel Adagh, Kel Denneg, Kel Ayr, Kel Gres and Kel Owey. French met some of the strongest resistance from the Ahaggar Tuareg. Their Amenokal, traditional chief Moussa ag Amastan, fought numerous battles in defense of the region. Finally, Tuareg territories were taken under French governance, and their confederations were largely dismantled and reorganized. When Africa Scramble ( 1884-Berlin Conference ) required to be stopped in 1960, French government shared Tuareg lands between Mali, Niger, Algeria, Burkina Faso and Libya.

The region which is subject of decleration of defacto Azawad Independent State, was given to Mali state of France in 1958 and when Mali gained freedom from France in 1960 this Azawad officialy became the part of Mali Republic.


The Tuareg rebellion of 1962–1964, sometimes called the First Tuareg Rebellion or the Alfellaga, was a short lived insurgency by populations of what is now northern Mali begun shortly after the nation achieved independence from France in 1960. Many in the sparsely populated and ethnically distinct north of Mali (along with some in southern Algeria and northern Niger expected an independent Tuareg, Berber, and Arab nation to be formed by the Sahara desert regions when French Colonialism ended. This combined with dissatisfaction over the new government led some Tuareg in Northern Mali to rebel in 1963. This rebellion was short-lived as the military response of the new Malian government was swift and harsh. No more than 1,500 anti-government fighters were ever active following the larger rising on 1963 but the response of the Malian Armed Forces, occupying much of what is now Kidal region, Gao Region, and Tomboctou Region resulted in a refugee crisis, as thousands fled to what is now Algeria (the southern reaches of which were still under French control). The military occupation, deaths, torture and imprisonment of suspected rebels has left deep resentment in much of the northern population. The area has seen two successive major rebellions in the decades since, and remains a source of conflict

The Tuareg rebellion between 1990-1995 have been lived both in Mali and Niger. Niger part called as Tchin-Tabaradene Massacre. Because Niger was fighting against a heavy financial crisis during Tuareg rebellion and president Ali Saibou ordered killing of thousands of Tuaregs without considering civilians. Also in Mali part, Libyan government supported Tuareg guerillas and caused their fight with Mali army.

The Tuareg Rebellion of 2007–2009 was an insurgency that began in February 2007 amongst elements of the Tuareg people living in the Sahara desert regions of northern Mali and Niger. It is one of a series of insurgencies by formerly nomadic Tuareg populations, which had last appeared in the mid-1990s, and date back at least to 1916. Populations dispersed to Algeria and Libya, as well as to the south of Niger and Mali in the 1990s returned only in the late 1990s. Former fighters were to be integrated into national militaries, but the process has been slow and caused increased resentment. Malian Tuaregs had conducted some raids in 2005-2006, which ended in a renewed peace agreement. Fighting in both nations was carried on largely in parallel, but not in concert. While fighting was mostly confined to guerrilla attacks and army counterattacks, large portions of the desert north of each nation were no-go zones for the military and civilians fled to regional capitals like Kidal Mali and Agadez Niger. Fighting was largely contained within Mali's Kidal Region and Niger's Agadez Region. Algeria helped negotiate an August 2008 Malian peace deal, which was broken by a rebel faction in December, crushed by the Malian military and wholescale defections of rebels to the government. Niger saw heavy fighting and disruption of Uranium production in the mountainous north, before a Libyan backed peace deal, aided by a factional split among the rebels, brought a negotiated ceasefire and amnesty in May 2009.


MNLA ( Mouvement National pour la Libération de l'Azawad ) have been formed to build independent Azawad country for Tuaregs who live in Mali, Niger and Moritania. A short day after MNLA captured Timbuktu, an authorised manager of MNLA, Moussa ag Attaher read freedom decleration of Azawad state at French Canal 24 TV, in 6th of April 2012. The formation of Independent Azawad State has been officialy declared by MNLA in 12th April 2012.

This independency progress has began with departure of heavy weaponed and financialy strengthened Tuareg rebels from Libya, after victory of constitutional government against Muammer Quaddafi. These rebellions attacked Kidal city of Mali in the date of 17 January 2012. Very short time after of coup d'etat by Captain Amadou Sanogo against Malien president Touare, because of claim of president's inability for these Tuareg attacks; Islamic Ansar Dine miliatants and West Africa Jihad Army militants joined to MNLA. So MNLA's mission was changed as formation of seriah state instead of formation of a Tuareg republic. Even just one day after of Moussa ag Attaher's " Aazawad state is a democratic republic " words at French Canal 24 TV in 6th April 2012; Ansar Dine part of MNLA immediately announced that they do not accept these words but Azawad will be managed by seriah rules.

After Ansar Dine's seriah announcement for so-called Azawad State, Mohamed Lamine Ould Sidatt who is ex general at Mali government announced that he formed Front de libération nationale de l'Azawad ( FLNA ) army with 500 heavily weaponed Arabic militants to rescue Timbuktu from MNLA forces and prevent management of so-called Azawad state by MLNA from Kindal.




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